Early engagement also ensures that research products (e.g., reports, policy briefs, factsheets) will have strategic usefulness for policymakers [30]. 2001;13. One study found that nearly half of state policymakers named professional associations as trusted sources for research information, specifically because the organization is perceived not to have a stake in the final policy outcome [58]. Hird JA. Public Commun Campaigns. Brownson RC, Eyler AA, Harris JK, Moore JB, Tabak RG. J Phys Act Health. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. PubMed  Powell BJ, Waltz TJ, Chinman MJ, Damschroder LJ, Smith JL, Matthieu MM, et al. Strategies for effective dissemination of research to United States policymakers: a systematic review. The purpose of the Model for Dissemination of Research is to highlight the gaps between research and targets audiences (e.g., policymakers) and improve dissemination through the use of a theoretical foundation and review of the literature [15]. In some states, this power is further distributed to county and local governments. Evidence-based policymaking: Insights from policy-minded researchers and research-minded policymakers: Routledge; 2011. Evid Policy. Weissman JS, Westrich K, Hargraves JL, Pearson SD, Dubois R, Emond S, et al. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01046-3, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01046-3. Common themes include the importance of personal relationships, the timeliness of evidence, and resource availability [4, 5]. Nelson JW, Scammell MK, Altman RG, Webster TF, Ozonoff DM. State level dissemination heavily relied on printed materials including from mental health care disparity report cards [41], policy briefs [38], and effectiveness reports [50]. 2005;33:83–105. The same study identified related barriers to the use of CER in policy decision-making, citing a lack of relevant high quality or conclusive research [42]. The influence of lobbying in the United States also differs from other western countries. Findings from this study suggest that having relevant research information increases policymakers’ co-sponsorship of proposals by 60% and highlights the importance of research access in the policy process [44]. Coverage and frequency: how many people are you trying to reach? One significant challenge to increasing the rigor in dissemination research studies is the difficulty in choosing and then measuring an outcome. 2014;42:17–25. The remaining studies covered the topics of education (n = 4) [39, 43, 53, 54], guns [56], veterans [44], and general social research (n = 3) [31, 32, 48]. They find that four strategies are most successful supporting the contribution: 1) making findings understandable to policymakers, 2) increasing opportunities for interaction between policymakers and researchers, 3) addressing any structural barriers for research to link with policy like lack of incentives for academics, and lastly, 4) changing the research to make it more relevant to policy issues. How will you know if you are successful and made an impact? J Natl Cancer Inst. Researchers and policymakers in Canada have sought to bridge the research-to-policy gap. The qualitative studies mostly employed interviews (n = 10), while others used case studies (n = 6) or focus groups (n = 3). The funding entities had no role in the development, data collection, analysis, reporting, or publication of this work. Under Horizon 2020, beneficiaries should engage in dissemination and exploitation activities. Tseng V, Coburn C. Using evidence in the US. Research that is presented in commonly used, accessible formats (e.g., briefs, factsheets, videos) [48] may also be more effective, though one study found that use of these formats was dependent on job type, with legislators and staffers preferring different formats [58]. Implement Sci. Dissemination: Expands available knowledge about a subject. Finally, two studies emphasized creating a sense of urgency or even shock-value within the message in order to capture policymakers’ interest [36, 57]. Steven Keen & Les Todres. J Econ Geogr. What is the effectiveness of these strategies? Quantitative measures of health policy implementation determinants and outcomes: a systematic review. Several examples across western countries contribute to a stronger nexus between research evidence and the policy-making process. Available from: /handbook. Yanovitzky I, Weber M. Analysing use of evidence in public policymaking processes: a theory-grounded content analysis methodology. Eur J Commun. We searched Academic Search Premier, PolicyFile, SocINDEX, Social Work Abstracts, and Web of Science from January 1980 through December 2019. Research activities supported by public funding are rarely considered complete until the results have been made widely available. 2012;87:609–26. Crowley M, Scott JTB, Fishbein D. Translating prevention research for evidence-based policymaking: results from the research-to-policy collaboration pilot. Corresponding strategies for effective dissemination to policymakers included starting early, drumming-up support, using champions and brokers, understanding the context, ensuring timeliness, relevance, and accessibility of research products, and knowing the players and the process. We took a three-pronged approach to develop a comprehensive understanding of existing knowledge in this area. Twelve studies (about 44%) evaluated dissemination at the state level [38,39,40,41,42,43,44, 47, 48, 50,51,52]. Orton L, Lloyd-Williams F, Taylor-Robinson D, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S. The use of research evidence in public health decision making processes: systematic review. Of the remaining studies, four examined policymaking in the Northeastern United States [45,46,47,48], four in the Western US [49,50,51,52], and one in the South [53]. Professor Chris Whitty, Chief Scientific Adviser for the Department of Health. 2009;87:863–902. In addition to early policymaker engagement, three studies highlighted the need for researchers to garner outside support for their work, ideally involving a broad pool of experts and cultivating a broader coalition of supporters than typical academic endeavors [47]. Translating disparities research to policy: a qualitative study of state mental health policymakers’ perceptions of mental health care disparities report cards. in Journal of public health management and practice in 2018. The current study synthesizes existing knowledge to understand dissemination strategies of social policy research to policymakers in the United States. 2.Delivery of Health Care – methods. The researcher needs to be motivated and support from local managers and profe … The search of the literature resulted in 5675 articles and 137 articles recommended by content experts for review with 5225 titles and abstracts screened after duplicates removed. PubMed  Evid Policy J Res Debate Pract Policy Press. Research is of no use unless it gets to the people who need to use it, Professor Chris Whitty, Chief Scientific Adviser for the Department of Health. One such similarity is obvious: the dissemination strategy of using champions and brokers mirrors the ERIC implementation strategy of identifying and preparing champions. Studies were eligible for this review if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) occurred in the United States; (2) reported in English; (3) systematically evaluated the impact of research on social policy (this typically excluded studies focusing on policymaker dissemination preferences); (4) discussed domestic social policy (as defined above); and (5) were published in the peer reviewed literature or the grey literature (e.g., think tank research briefs, foundation research publications). Available from: https://oxfordre.com/socialwork/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.001.0001/acrefore-9780199975839-e-610. Peabody J Educ. These themes align with existing knowledge about policymaker preferences including face-to-face engagement [72, 73], contextual considerations (e.g., timeliness and budget) [2, 72], and existing barriers and facilitators to research evidence use [4, 5]. In the case of the OER Research Hub, our research has been supported and facilitated by ‘open’ dissemination. Researchers examined in-person meetings and communications as a channel to disseminate research (n = 9) [30, 32, 33, 39, 44, 48, 53, 56, 57]. While other studies have examined the use of evidence in policymaking globally [4,5,6,7], the current review focuses on US social policy; for the purposes of this study, social policy includes policies which focus on antipoverty, economic security, health, education, and social services [8,9,10]. These efforts include open calls for research proposals as well as 15 dedicated Policy Research Units located at leading academic institutions around the country. PLoS One. 2008;14:150–4. 2014;35:611–30. Sorian R, Baugh T. Power of information: closing the gap between research and policy. Am J Public Health. Our review found strategies to increase effectiveness of research dissemination to policymakers includes starting early, drumming-up support, using champions and brokers, understanding the context, ensuring timeliness, relevance, and accessibility of research products, and knowing the players and the process. Massell D, Goertz ME, Barnes CA. Friese B, Bogenschneider K. The voice of experience: how social scientists communicate family research to policymakers. volume 15, Article number: 89 (2020) Mitton C, Adair CE, Mckenzie E, Patten SB, Perry BW. Introduction to Research Dissemination. However, this information can be difficult both to operationalize and to collect. https://www.britannica.com/topic/political-party, https://www.politico.eu/article/why-lobbying-in-america-is-different/, https://oxfordre.com/socialwork/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.001.0001/acrefore-9780199975839-e-610, https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tpp/ep/pre-prints/content-ppevidpold1700095, https://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Default.aspx?tabid=3421, https://www.cato.org/blog/complexity-state-government, https://www.urban.org/policy-centers/cross-center-initiatives/state-and-local-finance-initiative/state-and-local-backgrounders/state-and-local-expenditures, https://www.nihr.ac.uk/explore-nihr/funding-programmes/policy-research.htm, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-020-01046-3. Policy Stud. What Works Evid-Inf Policy Pract. PubMed Central  Print materials and personal communications were the most commonly used channels to disseminate social policy research to policymakers. Remember to contact your funding programme for guidance on reporting outputs. We completed reliability checks on 20% of the final studies, selected at random, to ensure accurate data abstraction. The de-centralized structure of government in the United States allows significant decision-making authority at the state and local levels, with wide variation in capacity and the availability of resources across the country [21]. Champaign: University of Illinois Press; 1963. Implement Sci. It is what will help you get the message out whether it is results of research or a successful intervention. Analyzed whether dissemination at the state level [ 32,33,34,35,36 ] dissemination and use of information: closing the between... 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