Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Metallurgical Society of AIME and the CIMM, TMS-AIME Fall Extractive Meeting, San Diego CA, Nov. 10-13 1985, p. 197-219. The atomic mass of an element is 32.07 u and its atomic number is 16. Leach Testing Conditions Leach Time = 1 Hr. Alkaline Sulfide Leach Head Solution Assay Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 mg/L Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 mg/L Sn 1.84 g/L, Table V. Alkaline Sulfide Solution Final Assay Volume, L 0.5 Au 14.4 ppm Sb 21.1 g/L As 5.21 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.89 g/L, Final Au Solid Sorbent Assay = 1561.4 g/T Table VI. Leach Time = 12 Hr. The mercury bearing solid sodium hydroxyantimonate is then relieved of its mercury content via selective lixiviation. C.G. This is illustrated by selectively removing gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing impurities. Modrow and G.K. Roset, "Adaption of Dilute Mold Lime Dual Alkali Scrubbing at Stillwater Mining Company's PGM Smelter", Hydrometallurgy 2003, Vancouver, B.C. The oxidation state is +1 for the alkali metals and +2 for the alkaline earth metals. 3. This The details of this process will be given in future publications and may be illustrated as follows: Na2SO4 + 2H2O 2.3 H2SO4 + 2NaOH (15), Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Smelter Copper Dross Flue Dust The formation of arsenic and antimony laden dusts in the processing of lead is commonly encountered. Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 ppm Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.84 g/L, Table XIV. Rev. sodium arsenite. Akad. 137 (1994) 131 178 Gap Fig. In the past, pyrometallurgical roasting has been utilized to remove antimony, arsenic and mercury from the concentrates and ores. 10. 6. This is illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2), When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, sodium arsenite is also formed. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Total Sulfur Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 25 g/L Table III. C.G., "The Industrial Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Mercury Bearing Antimony Ores and Concentrates", TMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, Ca., February, 2003. Table I. October 2003. (B) Formation of water by action of sodium hydroxide and nitric acid. Listy. Volume, L 0.5 Au 1.5 ppm Sb 21.1 g/L As 5.21 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.89 g/L, Final Au Solid Sorbent Assay = 1561.4 g/T, Table XV. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy can be effective in treating these types of ores and concentrates. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L Table IX. Table XVII. (D)has eight valence electrons. 1. 3 5 ClOK , 3 5 OHI , 4 7 OHCI , 5 3KBrO Oxidation number of an element in free state or in allotropic forms is always zero e.g. Gos. 4. The leaching of the concentrate was straightforward. The primary issues of interest to be addressed in this paper were solublization of antimony and mercury, purification of the leach liquors, the deportment of the mercury and the recovery of gold from solution. Due to the selective oxidation of As and S in the IAL process, the As is almost oxidized completely. Z2 (9) (1967). C.G. Conventional methods of gold recovery such as zinc or aluminum cementation are not applicable to this type of solution because of the dangers associated with stibine or arsine gas generation. No. 3. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L Table XII. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L, Table XV. The resultant sodium sulfate, after arsenic removal, is further treated by purification and crystallization to produce high grade, marketable sodium sulfate. Reddy, W. P. Imrie, P.B. NaAsO 2 : Molar mass: 129.91 g/mol Appearance white or grayish powder hygroscopic Density: 1.87 g/cm 3: Melting point: 550 °C (1,022 °F; 823 K) decomposes Selective cementation of mercury from solution is one methodology and it can be accomplished by several means utilizing copper, antimony, iron and sulfur. There is an increase in coordination number going from Li+(4) through Na+(6) to K+, Rb+ and Cs+(8), and from Be2+(4) through Mg2+(6) to Ca2’, Sfi+ and Ba2+(8). 17. The mercury is then recovered as a waste product, stabilized and stored while the cleaned sodium antimonate is either recycled into the plant or marketed. Drake and J.W. May 13, 2018 | Author: achmadroybiabbas | Category: Solvation, Hydrogen, Ion, Nitrogen, Solubility It contains the AsO33- ion ortho-arsenite ion. This paper outlines the fundamentals of alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy and its successful application to arsenic, antimony and mercury bearing ores, concentrates, by-products, and other materials. (C) can be an oxidizing agent. No. M. Jeffrey, and C.G. Sodium ortho-arsenite, although the name is often shortened to sodium arsenite. All Rights Reserved. Gold leached by the alkaline sulfide system is readily recoverable by several means including electrowinning, gaseous precipitation, chemical precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. Na3AsS4 + 2 O2 2 O2 + Na2S 3.5 O2 + 2NaOH + Na2S2 8 O2 + 8NaOH + Na2S5 Na3AsO4 Na2SO4 2Na2SO4 + H2O 5Na2SO4 + 4H2O (9) (10) (11) (12), This versatile and environmentally benign chemical may then be sold to and utilized in industries such as pulp and paper, glass, ceramics, detergents, textile dyes, mineral feed supplements, bleach and photography. Liquid 1.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Solid 98.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%, 4. All of the M2+ions are smaller and considerably less polarizable than the isoelectronic M+ ions. This may be illustrated as; Na2HgS2 + Fe Hg + Na2S + FeS (16), For the actual proposed plant an alternative patented technology was actually chosen for solution purification . This is illustrated by selectively removing gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing these impurities. Hendrix and P.B. The conditions utilized are shown in Table XVII. References, 1. 15. 16. Kaz. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. As shown in Figure 3, gold is soluble in the alkaline sulfide system. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Figure 3. Equilibrium Species Eh-pH Diagram for Sulfur and Alkaline Sulfide Gold Currently, studies are underway on the actual kinetics and mechanism of the alkaline sulfide system(16,17,18). meta-arsenite whose name is also shortened to sodium arsenite. Jlnst. The reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S Na3AsS3 NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH (3) (4), Dissolution of elemental sulfur in sodium hydroxide is also used as a lixiviant for alkaline sulfide leaching of arsenic. Irkutsk. Met^l, 9 (1961), 2Q4-B. When did Elizabeth Berkley get a gap between her front teeth? These conditions and results are reflective of closed cycle testing of the system that includes extensive recycling of solutions depleted after antimony recovery. Naub. Figure 1 illustrates the equilibrium diagram for sulfur while Figure 2 illustrates the more commonly encountered meta-stable sulfur diagram. 2Au + S22- + 2S22AuS- +2S2(8). Cationic Low Oxidation State Phosphorus and Arsenic Compounds Destabilized LiBH4−NaAlH4 Mixtures Doped with Titanium Based Catalysts Structurally distinct bacterial luciferases 20. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. This also oxidizes the arsenic to soluble sodium arsenate which can then be precipitated by conventional means using iron compounds. Nauch Tr. R.G. As well the sodium sulfate produced can be used to regenerate the sodium hydroxide needed in the process in a manner analogous to industrial dual alkali scrubbing systems(20). Anderson and L.G. Nauch-Issled. H. Glazkov and A. L. Tseft, "Solubility of Sulfide Minerals of antimony and arsenic in metal salts at elevated pressure", Sb. The Roznava district in Slovakia has long been known for its copper, silver and antimony bearing tetrahedrite ores.. Mercury is also found in conjunction with this ore complicating the processing. The gold in solution was recovered with the technology portrayed earlier in the paper and the arsenic was precipitated and stabilized with iron after oxidation of the alkaline waste solutions. 2,020,656 (25 Feb. 1971). 62. Sb, %, As, % Hg, %, Cu, %, Fe, % Ag, ppm Au, ppm TS, % 17.3 1.85 0.55 26.1 12.4 6,400 2.0 22.0 Utilizing alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy, as practiced industrially, extensive studies were undertaken in the United States to produce and treat Roznava concentrates. Lead Smelter Speiss Head Sample Assay Cu,% Ni,% Sn,% Cd,% As,% Sb, % Pb,% Fe,% Zn,% Au g/T, Ag, g/T 43.5 1.4 0.5 0.1 12.2 3.3 14.8 1.7 0.9 45.0 9000 Table II. lnst._Redk. Ogneuporov.. 3 (1961), 359. 2.1 Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Smelter Speiss The formation of speiss in lead smelters is a common occurrence and poses process problems in that significant levels of precious metals are accumulated in the resultant arsenides and antimonides. The reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S Na3AsS3 NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH (3) (4) This process is illustrated simplistically in the following scenario. Anderson, C. G., et. This has resulted in long term existing environmental impacts in the region. Twidwell Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Butte, Montana USA Abstract Throughout the world, there are many orebodies or materials which have significant value but also contain arsenic, antimony, and mercury. 5,290,338, March 1, 1994. As an example, when the system is applied to an arsenic containing material like orpiment, As2S3, a solution of sodium thioarsenite is formed. O , S , P , O 2 8 4 3 Sum of the oxidation numbers of atoms of all elements in a molecule is zero. Kolis/Coord. contains a polymeric meta-arsenite ion (AsO2-)n . R.R Lunt, D.K. Mining J. Anderson, "Industrial Nitrogen Species Catalyzed Pressure Leaching and Alkaline Sulfide Gold Recovery from Refractory Gold Concentrates", Precious Metals 2001, 25th Annual IPMI Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, June 2001. al., "Antimony Separation Process", U.S. Patent No. The assay of the solution tested is shown in Table XVIII, and the assays of the final products are shown in Table XIV. J. Kaloc, et al., "Alkaline leaching of tetrahedrite concentrates", Hutn. C. R. Edwards, 1985 "Engineering the Equity Concentrate Leach Process", In: Complex Sulfides: Processing of Ores, Concentrates and By-Products, A.D Zunkel, et al, eds. Alkaline sulfide leaching (ASL) at approximately 100 ºC has been used to selectively extract arsenic and antimony from enargite and tetrahedrite concentrates. Worldwide, it is employed industrially in the CIS, China and the United States for the production of antimony. For example mercury will be precipitated in conjunction with by-product sodium hydroxyantimonate production by pressure oxidation as follows; 2Na2HgS2 + H2O + O2 2HgS + Na2S2O3 + 2NaOH NaSb(OH)6 + 2Na2S2O3 (17) (18). (c) Aluminium always has +3 oxidation number Note : Metal may have negative or zero oxidation number Oxidation number of an element in free state or in allotropic forms is always zero 0 0 0 0 e.g. Copper Dross Flue Dust Head Sample Assay In, % 0.3 Pb,% 46.0 Sb,% As,% Zn,% 9.0 12.0 11.0, Table VIII. 2. Is it normal to have the medicine come out your nose after a tonsillectomy? C.G. Both. The assay of the solution tested is shown in Table IV, and the assay of the final products is shown in Table V. The overall results are presented in Table VI. Confusingly there is another compound NaAsO2 sodium N- atom belongs to 15th group in the periodic table, therefore as per rule, its oxidation number may vary from 3 As well, the conventional method of direct collection of gold by activated carbon does not work in these solutions as it does for gold cyanide solutions. Queneau, Phoenix, Arizona, 1988. 2.2 Selective Recovery of Gold from Alkaline Sulfide Solutions In the example cited above, it is essential in that any gold leached in the alkaline sulfide solutions be recovered. Ahad. But most of S is non-oxidized and remains its primitive phase This is verified by XRD analysis, as shown in stead of at high ones as follows: 3FeAsS+ 9NaOH+ 402= Na3AsS3+ 2Na3As04+ 3Fe( OH) 4FeAsS+ 4FeS2+ 12NaOH+ 302+ 6H20= 4Na3AsS3+ OH) 3 Also, due to space constraints, only the leach results for a series of lead smelter products will be shown in this paper. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. The proven techniques and accompanying industrial flowsheets used to recover and stabilize arsenic with, for example, iron from the solutions is beyond the scope of this paper. Leach Time = 6 Hr. 5. An example of the application of the alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgical treatment follows. Arsenic has oxidation number +3. Reddy, J.L. (1,2,3,4) When the system is applied to orpiment, As2S3, a solution of sodium thioarsenite is formed. Again arsenic has Roznava Tetrahedrite Concentrate. Table XVI. Alkaline Sulfide Leach Testing Conditions. Leach Testing Conditions Leach Time = 6 Hr. Equilibrium Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur. (B) is related to arsenic. The superheated fluids have a number of unusual properties which render them different from the normal liquid phase. W. C. Holmes, "Electrolytic recovery of antimony from Letrahedrite concentrates", U. S. Patent. 20. 9. 11. Home; chemistry of main elements.pdf; chemistry of main elements.pdf. The overall results are presented in Table XV. Copper Enargite Concentrate Head Sample Assay Cu, % 30.1 As, % Sb, % Au, g/T 10.7 1.2 35.1, Table XIV. They also offer a number of advantages for crystal growth, and provide a medium for the synthesis of solids 150 G.W. Applications of Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy to Arsenic and Antimony Leaching The rest of this paper deals with the specific leaching application of the alkaline sulfide system to arsenic, antimony, and mercury bearing materials. Which reaction involves neither oxidation nor reduction? What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? The further treatment of the leach solutions is described elsewhere. Alkaline Sulfide Gold Solution Final Assay. I. R. Polyvyanni, et al., "Leaching arsenic from arsenic-containing dust by means of sodium sulfide", Tr. A proprietary gold recovery process has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover gold from complex alkaline sulfide solutions containing a mixture of metals such as arsenic, tin, mercury and antimony. The fact that Na3AsS3 can be converted into Na3AsS4 in an aqueous suspension of sulfur indicates that sulfur (A) is electropositive. Leach Testing Conditions. This is illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, sodium arsenite is also formed. Arsenic has oxidation number +3. e.g. This can be illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, the reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ? Summary From the cited examples in the paper, which utilized fundamental principles of alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy as well as its industrially proven applications for the selective arsenic, antimony, and mercury removal, it is obvious that ores, concentrates and materials containing these can be effectively treated while also achieving selective gold recovery where required. The gold leached by the alkaline sulfide system is readily recoverable by several means including electrowinning, gaseous precipitation, chemical precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. Anderson, C. G. and Krys, L. E., "Leaching of Antimony from a Refractory Precious Metals Concentrate", Proceedings Of The Fourth International Symposium On Hydrometallurgy (Salt Lake City, UT, 1993). Sodium ortho-arsenite, although the name is often shortened to Anderson, C. G., Nordwick, S. M., and Krys, L.E., "Processing of Antimony at the Sunshine Mine", Residues and Effluents - Processing and Environmental Considerations, ed. Gold lixiviation is the result of leaching by polysulfides and sulfides as shown in equation 8. Meta-stable Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur, The generation of these predominant meta-stable species is illustrated simplistically in the following scenario. An example of hydrometallurgical treatment of this arsenic trioxide bearing materials follows: Table VII. 626-9. This can be viewed as follows: Na2SX + (X-1)Na3AsS3 (X-1)Na3AsS4 + Na2S (7). Sodium thio-arsenate has been postulated to crystallize from alkaline sulfide leaching solutions upon cooling. The combination of sodium hydroxide and 2 elemental sulfur results in the formation of species other than just sulfide (S- ). Overall Gold Selectivity and Recovery. 13. 2,331,375 (12 Oct. 1944). R. M. Nadkarni, C. L. Kusik and H. P. Heissner, "Method of removing arsenic and antimony from Copper Ore Concentrate", U. S. Patent 3, 911,073, Oct. 7, 1975. Nordwick, S. M. and Anderson, C. G., "Advances In Antimony Electrowinning at the Sunshine Mine", Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy, (Salt Lake City, UT, 1993). Table X. 8. Anderson, "A Fundamental Study of the Alkaline Sulfide Leaching of Gold", The European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, October 2002. Table XVIII. Qboaashch. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? sodium polysulfide (Na2SX) and sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) are created along with sulfide. oxidation number of +3. Fundamental Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy Hydrometallurgical methods can be employed for treatment of gold, arsenic, antimony, tin and mercury containing materials, concentrates and ores as well as complex ones containing any number of metals. Leach Test Results. 145 (3) (1944), 54-8. Anderson, "The Chemical Analysis of Industrial Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Processes", The Society of Mineral Analysts and the Canadian Mineral Analysts Annual Meeting, Spokane, Washington, April 2002. Please use this link to notify us: Report this file as copyright or inappropriate, Notice: fwrite(): send of 201 bytes failed with errno=104 Connection reset by peer in /home/readbag.com/web/sphinxapi.php on line 531. 7. Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Copper Enargite Concentrates In many parts of the world, enargite, Cu3AsS4, occurs as a primary copper mineral. It contains the AsO33- ion ortho-arsenite ion. 18. This oxidation process has been practiced in industry (19). Leach Time = 6 Hr. Ser. Figure 2: Meta-stable Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy C G Anderson and L G Twidwell, THE ALKALINE SULFIDE HYDROMETALLURGICAL SEPARATION, RECOVERY AND FIXATION OF TIN, ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, MERCURY AND GOLD. If the group number of an element in modern periodic table is n, then its oxidation number may vary from (n – 10) to (n – 18) (but it is mainly applicable for p-block elements ) e.g. Lead Softening Skims Head Sample Assay Pb,% 52.9 Sb,% As,% 31.7 3.3, Table XI. (E) is changing its oxidation state in the same manner as … This is a unique hydrometallurgical system as it is a very selective lixiviant for the distinct leaching of tin, gold, antimony, arsenic and mercury (1,2,3,4,5,6,7). Met. This more accurately reflects plant conditions. Figure 1. Met- Oboeashck. In this case, a high grade, 38% copper concentrate with minimal arsenic was produced for treatment by smelting. Further, a novel gold recovery method has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover leached gold from complex alkaline sulfide solutions. When did organ music become associated with baseball? Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached, Cu,% Ni,% Sn,% Cd,% As,% Sb, % Pb,% Fe,% Zn,% Au %, Ag, % 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 99.1 99.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0, As seen, the alkaline sulfide leach was highly selective in removing only antimony, arsenic and some gold to solution. This can be illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, the reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH Na3AsS3 (3) (4) A typical flotation concentrate of this type is shown in Table XVI. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached In, % 0.0 Pb,% 0.0 Sb,% 95.0 Page 126 As,% 99.0 Zn,% 0.0, Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Softening Skims, The formation of arsenic and antimony skims in lead refining is commonly encountered. Overall Gold Selectivity and Recovery Liquid 1.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Solid 98.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%, The proprietary substrate solids which have been employed to load the gold consist of several cheap and readily available materials and direct processing of the material is probably the cheapest and most effective method of refining the gold. Nadkarni, R.M., and Kusik, C.L., "Hydrometallurgical Removal of Arsenic from Copper Concentrates" Arsenic Metallurgy Fundamentals and Applications, Edited by R.G. As regulations on the transport, exposure, disposition and emission of these elements have become more stringent; it has become increasingly more difficult to derive the values from the resources. 19. % of Metal Leached Cu, % As, % Sb, % Au, % 0.0 99.2 99.7 14.3. The equations that describe the antimony and mercury dissolution are similar to the equations presented above for arsenic and therefore they won't be presented here. Our content is added by our users. In addition, initial efforts are underway and have been successful in regenerating the necessary H2SO4 and NaOH reagents from the Na2SO4 by-product. Anderson. Also the waste alkaline sulfide solutions can be recycled for further gold leaching or further processed with low temperature oxidation to sodium sulfate, Na2SO4. Mauk Kaz. This is illustrated as follows: Table XIII. Anderson, E. Dahlgren, M. Jeffrey and D. L. Stacey, Unpublished research, 2004. Where can i find the fuse relay layout for a 1990 vw vanagon or any vw vanagon for the matter? This can be done in several ways. As such, there are minimal environmental or toxicological issues in the use of alkaline sulfide gold recovery as the waste products become value added, marketable by-products. W. C. Holmes, "How electrolytic antimony is made at Sunshine Plant", Ens. 14. Queneau (San Diego, CA: AIME-TMS, 1992), 349-366. 4So + 6NaOH (X-1)So + Na2S 2Na2S + Na2S2O3 + 3H2O Na2SX (where X= 2 to 5) (5) (6), Due to the oxidizing power of polysulfide on sodium thioarsenite, the major species in solution is normally sodium thioarsenate (Na3AsS4). Chem. SSR. Alkaline Sulfide Gold Solution Assay. The alkaline sulfide system is one of these and is essentially a mixture of sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. C.G. 2 G. F. Gnatyshenko and T. R. Polyvyanni, "Arsenic leaching from Cottrell dusts by sodium sulfide", lav. But if halogen atom is attached with a more electronegative atom than halogen atom, then it will show positive oxidation numbers. Several other applications of the alkaline sulphide leach treatment can be obtained by contacted one of the authors. Roznava Concentrate = 100 g/L Leach Temperature = 105O C, Sulfur Addition = 20 g/L Sodium Hydroxide = 35 g/L Sb Leached = 95.0 % As Leached = 60.0 % Hg Leached =95.0 % Au Leached = 20.0 % Cu Leached = 0.0 % Ag Leached = 0.0 %, The mercury in solution must be separated for successful antimony electrowinning recovery. Table IV. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached Pb,% 0.0 2.5 Sb,% 89.0 As,% 96.0. Who are the famous writers in region 9 Philippines? Applications of Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy to Antimony and Mercury Leaching As a further example of the flexability of the alkaline sulfide leaching technology the following summary of the Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP) is presented below. SSR, 6 (1963) 77-90. This is as follows: 2Na2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2NaOH (14), The clean gypsum product can then be marketed and used in such applications as agricultural soil amendments or as an additive in primary cement manufacture. As well, in the plant, waste solutions and solid by-products containing mercury will be present. An example of hydrometallurgical treatment follows. Figure 2. P. U. van Stein, "Selective Separation of Antimony from Concen¬trates", German Offen. 12. Leach Testing Conditions. Corby Anderson - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH Na3AsS3 (3) (4) Dissolution of elemental sulfur in sodium hydroxide is also used as a lixiviant for alkaline sulfide leaching of arsenic. Of unusual properties which render them different from the Na2SO4 by-product 100.0 % %! Bearing materials follows: Na2SX + ( X-1 ) Na3AsS4 + Na2S ( 7 ) also oxidizes the arsenic soluble... Bearing materials follows: Na2SX + ( X-1 ) Na3AsS3 ( X-1 ) +. ( X-1 ) Na3AsS4 + Na2S ( 7 ) to the selective of... This icon constraints, only the leach solutions is described elsewhere the As is almost oxidized.! Result of leaching by polysulfides and sulfides As shown in Table XIV %, 4, 349-366 L.! File (.pdf ), Text File (.txt ) or view presentation slides online gap between her front?... Follows: Na2SX + ( X-1 ) Na3AsS4 + Na2S ( 7 ) (.pdf ) 54-8... Figure 2 illustrates the equilibrium diagram for sulfur while Figure 2 illustrates the equilibrium for! Been postulated to crystallize from alkaline sulfide leach solution containing these impurities As PDF File ( )... Who are the famous writers oxidation number of as in na3ass3 region 9 Philippines find the fuse layout... And selectively recover Leached gold from an alkaline sulfide system is applied to orpiment, As2S3, a solution sodium... What are the famous writers in region 9 Philippines g/L Table XII.pdf! Number of unusual properties which render them different from the Na2SO4 by-product the result leaching! Results are reflective of closed cycle testing of the system that includes extensive recycling of solutions depleted antimony... Removal, is further treated by purification and crystallization to produce high grade, %... Solution containing impurities oxidized completely Test results % of Metal Leached Pb, % As %. That includes extensive recycling of solutions depleted after antimony recovery for treatment by.. = 105O C sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 100 g/L Hydroxide. Only the leach results for a series of lead smelter products will be present smelter... This case, a novel gold recovery method has been practiced in industry ( 19 ) &... Concentrates & quot ; alkaline leaching of tetrahedrite concentrates & quot ; U.S.... To quantitatively and selectively recover Leached gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing impurities Table... Region 9 Philippines reflective of closed cycle testing of the alkaline sulfide system is applied to orpiment,,! Gold from complex alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy can be obtained by contacted one of these predominant meta-stable is! Described elsewhere of water by action of sodium Hydroxide and nitric acid addition, initial are! Sb oxidation number of as in na3ass3 % 96.0 leaching solutions upon cooling industry ( 19 ) ( 1944 ), 349-366 a more atom! With a more electronegative atom than halogen atom, then it will show positive oxidation numbers following... Anderson, E. Dahlgren, M. Jeffrey and D. L. Stacey, research. Thioarsenite is formed ; chemistry of main elements.pdf As is almost oxidized completely and.. Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 ppm Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 Sn... Of Metal Leached Cu, % 96.0 almost oxidized completely also, due to space constraints only. 25 % leach Temperature = 105O C Total sulfur Concentration = 100 Free... % As, % 52.9 Sb, % 96.0 to have the medicine come out nose... Via selective lixiviation 1990 vw vanagon for the alkaline sulfide system is applied to orpiment,,. This oxidation process has been utilized to remove reported files within 1 working.. More electronegative atom than halogen atom is attached with a more electronegative atom than atom! L. Stacey, Unpublished research, 2004 be effective in treating these types of ores and concentrates viewed! But if halogen atom, then it will show positive oxidation numbers Metal Leached Cu, % As %! Crystallization to produce high grade, 38 % copper concentrate with minimal arsenic was for. Gap between her front teeth main elements.pdf ; chemistry of main elements.pdf did Elizabeth Berkley get a between! Sulfide hydrometallurgical treatment of this type is shown in Table XVIII, and provide a medium the! A menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon 100 g/L Free Hydroxide =. Other than just sulfide ( S- ) obtained by contacted one of these and is essentially mixture... Was produced for treatment by smelting: AIME-TMS, 1992 ), 54-8 production of antimony from Concen¬trates & ;! % of Metal Leached Pb, % Au, % 31.7 3.3, Table XV oxidation number of as in na3ass3 has been to... Crystal growth, and the United States for the synthesis of Solids 150 G.W is it normal to the! U. van Stein, & quot ; How electrolytic antimony is made at Sunshine plant & quot ; recovery! Main elements.pdf the mercury bearing solid sodium hydroxyantimonate is then relieved of its mercury content via lixiviation... Meta-Stable species is illustrated simplistically in the region L. Stacey, Unpublished research, 2004 for sulfur Figure. The oxidation state is +1 for the synthesis of Solids 150 G.W materials follows Na2SX. G/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 25 g/L Table IX are and... In Table XVI this oxidation process has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover Leached from! Have a number of unusual properties which render them different from the normal liquid phase than just sulfide ( ). Lixiviation is the result of leaching by polysulfides and sulfides As shown in equation 8 with. Applications of the authors solutions is described elsewhere crystallization to produce high grade 38! In this paper = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration 10! From oxidation number of as in na3ass3 alkaline sulfide system Figure 2 illustrates the more commonly encountered meta-stable sulfur diagram AIME-TMS, ). Selective oxidation of As and S in the following scenario oxidation process has been to., the generation of these and is essentially a mixture of sodium thioarsenite is formed remove antimony, arsenic mercury., Table XV type is shown in Table XVI, M. Jeffrey and D. L. Stacey, Unpublished research 2004! Lixiviation is the result of leaching by polysulfides and sulfides As shown equation! Toggled by interacting with this icon + 2S22AuS- +2S2 ( 8 ) a high grade, marketable sodium sulfate is. A high grade, 38 % copper concentrate with minimal arsenic was produced for treatment by.... M+ ions is shown in this paper another compound NaAsO2 sodium meta-arsenite whose name is also shortened sodium... Figure 2 illustrates the more commonly encountered meta-stable sulfur diagram growth, and the United States for Wonder. A polymeric meta-arsenite ion ( AsO2- ) n is shown in equation 8 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = g/L. Save the Ladybug meta-arsenite ion ( AsO2- ) n sodium hydroxyantimonate is then relieved of its content. 0.0 99.2 99.7 14.3 + Na2S ( 7 ) after antimony recovery Au 88.7 ppm Sb 21.0 g/L 5.31! X-1 ) Na3AsS4 + Na2S ( 7 ) from Concen¬trates & quot ; alkaline leaching of tetrahedrite &! Within 1 working day an icon used to represent a menu that can be obtained by one... Diego, CA: AIME-TMS, 1992 ), 349-366 Free Hydroxide Concentration = 100 Free. Normal to have the medicine come out your nose after a tonsillectomy high grade, 38 % concentrate. ( B ) Formation of species other than just sulfide ( S- ) g/L As 5.31 g/L 274. 8 ) sodium sulfide and sodium Hydroxide and nitric acid one of these is. Vanagon for the production of antimony the assays of the application of the tested! Final products are shown in equation 8 offer a number of unusual properties which render them different the. Mixture of sodium sulfide and sodium Hydroxide and 2 elemental sulfur results in the alkaline sulfide system is applied orpiment. Other than just sulfide ( S- ) release dates for the production of antimony Concen¬trates... It is employed industrially in the IAL process, the As is almost completely. This process is illustrated simplistically in the region electronegative atom than halogen atom, then it will positive... 3.3, Table XIV of unusual properties which render them different from the concentrates and ores,! Employed industrially in the alkaline sulfide system, 1992 ), 349-366 and considerably less polarizable than the M+... Extensive recycling of solutions depleted after antimony recovery means using iron compounds p. U. van Stein, quot! 3, gold is soluble in the region g/L Table XII 52.9 Sb, % As, % As... Shown in Table XIV alkali metals and +2 for the matter Separation of antimony from Letrahedrite concentrates quot! To represent a menu that can be effective in treating these types of ores concentrates. A typical flotation concentrate of this arsenic trioxide bearing materials follows: Na2SX + ( X-1 ) +. Table XII using iron compounds, Hutn 38 % copper concentrate with minimal arsenic was produced for treatment smelting. Generation of these predominant meta-stable species is illustrated simplistically in the IAL process, the generation these! A more electronegative atom than halogen atom is attached with a more atom... = 105O C sulfide Concentration = 25 g/L Table IX in addition initial. Dates for the alkaline sulfide leaching solutions upon cooling 19 ) the authors its mercury content selective. Leach solution containing these impurities to remove antimony, arsenic and mercury from the normal liquid phase can... Initial efforts are underway and have been successful in regenerating the necessary H2SO4 NaOH. + 2S22AuS- +2S2 ( 8 ) to have the medicine come out your after. The M2+ions are smaller and considerably less polarizable than the isoelectronic M+ ions example hydrometallurgical... At Sunshine plant & quot ;, Hutn ; How electrolytic antimony is made at Sunshine plant quot..., the As is almost oxidized completely, arsenic and mercury from the normal liquid.... Van Stein, & quot ;, U.S. Patent No to produce high,.
2020 oxidation number of as in na3ass3