The understanding of perspective was different from that of the nearby European Renaissance painting tradition, and the scene depicted often included different time periods and spaces in one picture. Book your tickets online for the top things to do in Turkey on Tripadvisor: See 754,845 traveler reviews and photos of Turkey tourist attractions. ", "Turkey: Archeological Dig Reshaping Human History", "Turkish Airlines: International Flight Destinations", "Turkish Airlines Now Fly To An Incredible 125 Countries", "Study in Turkey: International Airports in Turkey", "It will be the biggest airport of the world", "Istanbul's New Erdoğan-Backed Airport to Be Named After... Erdoğan", "Istanbul's $1.3BN Eurasia Tunnel prepares to open", "BAKÜ-T İ FL İ S-CEYHAN BORUHATTI'NDA SON DURUM", "Russia to Shift Ukraine Gas Transit to Turkey as EU Cries Foul", "Turkey Blocks: Incident Reports and News", "Turkey leads in social media censorship: new Twitter transparency report", "Velaro Turkey: High-Speed Train for TCDD", "Energy pricing and non-market flows in Turkey's energy sector • SHURA Enerji Dönüşümü Merkezi", "Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 Worldwide review", EU Integrated Environmental Approximation Strategy, "Who We Are?  Turkey's gross external debt reached $453.2 billion at the end of December 2017.  However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and approximately 70–80 per cent of the country's citizens identify themselves as Turkish. , Despite the universal health care, total expenditure on health as a share of GDP in 2018 was the lowest among OECD countries at 6.3% of GDP, compared to the OECD average of 9.3%.. Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.  Turkey was a member of the United Nations Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955, 1961 and 2009–2010.  Fatih Birol the head of the International Energy Agency said that fossil fuel subsidies should be redirected, for example to the health system. , Foreign direct investment (FDI) was $8.3 billion in 2012, a figure expected to rise to $15 billion in 2013. , Supporters of Atatürk's reforms are called Kemalists, as distinguished from Islamists, representing the two diverging views regarding the role of religion in legislation, education and public life. A long succession of political entities existed in Asia Minor over the centuries. One of the earliest permanently settled regions, present-day Turkey was home to important Neolithic sites such as Göbekli Tepe, the world's oldest known temple founded in the 10th millennium BC, and Çatalhöyük, which has evidence of early agriculture and cattle and sheep domestication. In 1071, the Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, starting the Turkification process in the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Armenia and Anatolia, gradually spreading throughout the region. , The House of Seljuk originated from the Kınık branch of the Oghuz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, in the Yabgu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy, to the north of the Caspian and Aral Seas, in the 9th century. Lowlands also occur to the south of the Sea of Marmara and along the lower Sakarya River east of the Bosporus.  The process of Hellenization that began with Alexander's conquest accelerated under Roman rule, and by the early centuries of the Christian Era, the local Anatolian languages and cultures had become extinct, being largely replaced by ancient Greek language and culture. A typical propane … Return to the refrigerator for at least 4 hours and up to 12 hours to dry out the skin (this helps crisp it).  Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (16 inches), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The Turkish Armed Forces consist of the Land Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Force. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the Parliament. Turkey's first sound film was shown in 1931. Structurally, the country lies within the geologically young folded-mountain zone of Eurasia, which in Turkey trends predominantly east to west.  The Kemalist view supports a form of democracy with a secular constitution and Westernised culture, while maintaining the necessity of state intervention in the economy, education and other public services. , Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President and subsequently introduced many reforms. According to the 2011 estimate, the population is increasing by 1.35 percent each year. Each category includes first instance courts and high courts. The geology of Turkey is complex, with sedimentary rocks ranging from Paleozoic to Quaternary, numerous intrusions, and extensive areas of volcanic material. However, agriculture still accounted for a quarter of employment. Turkish folk dance is diverse. However, scientific attempts were unsuccessful, as yet, to attribute a particular design to a specific ethnic, regional, or even nomadic versus village tradition.  Access to high-quality school heavily depends on the performance in the secondary school entrance exams, to the point that some students begin taking private tutoring classes when they are ten years old. The system as a whole is referred to as the Pontic Mountains (Doğukaradeniz Dağları). The national dog breeds are the Kangal, Malaklı, Akbaş and Anatolian Shepherd. Turkey subsequently became a founding member of the OECD in 1961, and an associate member of the EEC in 1963..  Mutlu's 1990 study estimated Kurds made up around 12 per cent of the population, while Mehrdad Izady placed the figure around 25 per cent. , Between 9 October – 25 November 2019, Turkey conducted a military offensive into north-eastern Syria..  The narrow coastal strip between the Pontic Mountains and the Black Sea is home to the Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, which contain some of the world's few temperate rainforests.  The office of Prime Minister has been abolished and its powers (together with those of the Cabinet) have been transferred to the President, who is the head of state and is elected for a five-year term by direct elections.  By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk. Turkey's migrant crisis created after an estimated 2.5 percent of the population are international migrants.  The 1942-44 wealth tax for non-Muslims, the emigration of a portion of Turkish Jews to Israel after 1948, and the ongoing Cyprus dispute, which damaged relations between Turkish Muslims and Christians (culminating in the Istanbul pogrom of 6–7 September 1955), were other important events that contributed to the decline of Turkey's non-Muslim population.  Turkey is ranked 32nd out of 34 in the OECD's PISA study. The Ankara-Konya line became operational in 2011, while the Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in 2014. Renewable energy in Turkey is being increased and Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant is being built on the Mediterranean coast: but despite national electricity generation overcapacity fossil fuels are still subsidized. , On 20 May 2016, the Turkish parliament stripped almost a quarter of its members of immunity from prosecution, including 101 deputies from the pro-Kurdish HDP and the main opposition CHP party.  A decentralisation program for Turkey has been a topic of discussion in the country's academics, politics and the broader public.. Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture.  In reaction to the failed coup attempt on 15 July 2016, over 160,000 judges, teachers, police and civil servants have been suspended or dismissed, 77,000 have been formally arrested, and 130 media organisations, including 16 television broadcasters and 45 newspapers, have been closed by the government of Turkey. , Academics suggest the Alevi population may be from 15 to 20 million, while the Alevi-Bektaşi Federation states that there are around 25 million.  Two of the extinct Anatolian languages, Hittite and Luwian, are considered the earliest-attested of all Indo-European languages. Each province is divided into districts (ilçe), for a total of 973 districts. , The Montreux Convention (1936) restored Turkey's control over the Turkish Straits, including the right to militarise the coastlines of the Dardanelles and Bosporus straits and the Sea of Marmara, and to block maritime traffic in war time.. The efforts of Midhat Pasha during the late Tanzimat era led the Ottoman constitutional movement of 1876, which introduced the First Constitutional Era, but these efforts proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire. In the Second Balkan War (1913) the Ottomans managed to recover their former capital Edirne (Adrianople) and its surrounding areas in East Thrace, which was formalised with the Treaty of Constantinople (1913). Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic until the Hellenistic period. The northern folded zone comprises a series of mountain ridges, increasing in elevation toward the east, that occupy a belt about 90 to 125 miles (145 to 200 km) wide immediately south of the Black Sea.  The Association of Atheism (Ateizm Derneği), the first official atheist organisation in the Balkans or Middle East, was founded in 2014. 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